Skip to content

. HOME

This website compiled and researched entirely by Mark Teverson © 2014

.

INTRUSIVE ADS

.

COSMOLOGY

APPENDIX 1 DIAGRAM web

 A multiverse review,

with special reference to anthropic constraints

on the cosmological constant

.

DISCUSSION AREAS OF INTEREST TO THE MULTIVERSE HYPOTHESIS

Website started on 8th March 2013.

Click your mouse on the above box chart to enlarge it. To print it when enlarged, goto: Print – Page set up (landscape), Print – Preview, Print

The contents of each box is listed on the right, under ‘Recent Posts’. Clicking on any of these will take you to a list of papers, reviews and articles of some relevance to that area. Most of these references will have a hyperlink which will take you directly to that actual work, online. The final post, BIBLIOGRAPHY & LIST OF ALL REFERENCES, contains an alphabetical list of all the academic references in all the posts on this website. This is the most useful general resource post on this site. Click on HOME to return to this page, or go straight to MULTIVERSE.

This is very much ‘work in progress’! I am a neophyte; it will contain many errors. It is a steep learning curve for me, and a genuine attempt to try to pull this area into a form with which I can grapple. It should not be seen as an attempt to be comprehensive, focused or wise.

markteverson@sohoarts.co.uk

www.markteverson.com

© Mark Teverson 2014

.

. MEASUREMENT PROBLEM IN QUANTUM MECHANICS

THE SYMBOLIC MATHEMATICS FOR QM DECOHERENCE

.

This post gives a basic mathematical formalism to the phenomenon of decoherence, or the point at which a quantum system evolves into the classical world, apparently occurring only when measured.

To understand decoherence requires knowledge of classical phase spaces and Hilbert spaces (Hilbert space is a vector space containing quantum states in any number of dimensions, and may be expressed in integers, real or complex numbers), and a simple derivation in Dirac (bra-ket) notation to demonstrate how decoherence destroys the quantum nature of a system.

In non-relativistic quantum mechanics a N particle system is represented as a wave function

xxx

each xi being a point in 3 dimensional space, r3. This is quantum phase space. Classical phase space contains a function in 6N dimensions – 3 spatial coordinates and 3 momentum. Therefore the effective dimensionality of a system’s phase space is how many degrees of freedom, which is 6 times the total number of a system’s free particles. Position and momentum are represented in Hilbert space as operators which do not commute.

The environment selects from the original state vector individual expansions that decohere – or lose phase coherence – with each other. These decohered elements are no longer in quantum mechanical interference with each other, and are said to be quantum entangled with their environment. The environment (in this description) is the measuring device, which is read by humans.

In Dirac notation,the initial state of the system is denoted as a vector

vector psi whereby:

6.1

where the ket-vectors  1,2  denote the quantum alternative states available. A quantum state is an element in an Hilbert space.

i  specifies the different quantum alternatives states available. They form an orthonormal eigenvector basis:

6.2

An ‘observable’ – meaning any measurable parameter of the system – will have a specific eigenvalue ei for each quantum alternative state i. An observable could be, say for a particle, its position r or momentum p. Other observables, also termed ‘linear operators’, are energy E, z – components of spin sz, orbital angular momentum Lz, total angular momentum Jz etc. In the Dirac, or bra-ket representation, these are, respectively:

6.3,4,5

The coefficients c1, c2  are probability amplitudes which correspond to each quantum state kets 1,2 , and the absolute square  ci2  is the probability of measuring the system to be in the quantum state, or eigenstate, of i.

All wave functions are assumed to be normalised. The sum of all the probabilities of measuring every possible state is unity,

6.6

The probability of collapsing to a given eigenstate phi-k  is the Born probability pk. After the measurement has been made, all other elements of the wave function vector – those that did not collapse, noeq 

will all have collapsed to zero so eq.

The total combined system and environment can be described in vector terms by tensor multiplying vectors of the subsystems altogether. Let epsc  be the initial state of the environment. Prior to any interaction, the joint state is written:

6.7

where cie  means the tensor product: cxepsi.

This system can interact with its environment in one of two ways:

  • The system loses its identity and merges with the environment
  • The system is not disturbed. This is the idealised non-disturbing measurement envisaged in the EPR thought experiment.

.

System absorbed by environment

6.8

and therefore:

6.9

The unitarity of time evolution demands that the total of all states remains orthonormal. Further, their scalar (sometimes called inner) products with each other vanish, since  ijd  we have:

6.10

The orthonormality of quantum environment states is required for the environment to select out those states to decohere – a process termed einselection.

.

System not disturbed by environment

This is the EPR idealised undisturbed system. Here, each element of the system interacts with the environment in the following manner:

6.11

This means that the system does disturb the environment, but is itself undisturbed by the environment. This gives:

aaa

and due to the requirement for unitarity:

6.13

and due to the large number of hidden degrees of freedom in the environment, decoherence also requires:

eeapd

As before noted, this is the requirement for the environment to select out those states to decohere, or einselect – but the approximation becomes more exact when there’s an increase in the number of degrees of freedom in the environment.

*****

These Dirac expressions regarding decoherence occur throughout quantum mechanics of the measurement problem, specifically in von Neumann’s attempt to mathematically describe wave function collapse by the interaction of human consciousness on wave function collapse, and in the Many Worlds hypothesis.

. MULTIVERSE

This website compiled and researched entirely by Mark Teverson © 2013

Universe or Multiverse, Bernard Carr (Ed.) (Cambridge 2007)

CARROLL,S.M. (2001) The Cosmological Constant  http://www.emis.ams.org/journals/LRG/Articles/lrr-2001-1/download/lrr-2001-1Color.pdf

CARROLL,S.M. (2004) Why is the Universe Accelerating?  http://www.astro.caltech.edu/~george/ay21/readings/carroll.pdf

CIRKOVIC, M. BOSTROM, N. (1999) Cosmological constant and the final anthropic hypothesis   http://xxx.lanl.gov/abs/gr-qc/9906042

DAVIES, P.C.W. (2004),  Multiverse Cosmological Models    http://arxiv.org/ftp/astro-ph/papers/0403/0403047.pdf

LINDE,A. (2007) Inflationary Cosmology  http://arxiv.org/pdf/0705.0164v2.pdf

LINDE,A. (2005) Inflation and String Cosmology  http://arxiv.org/pdf/hep-th/0503195v1.pdf

LIDDLE, A.R. (1999) An introduction to cosmological inflation http://arxiv.org/abs/astro-ph/9901124

TEGMARK, M. (2010) Many Worlds in Context  http://arxiv.org/pdf/0905.2182v2.pdf

TSUJIKAWA,S. (2003) Introductory Review of Cosmic Inflation  http://arxiv.org/pdf/hep-ph/0304257v1.pdf

.

Specific reading

ADAMS,F.C. (2008): Stars In Other Universes: Stellar structure with different fundamental constants  http://arxiv.org/pdf/0807.3697v1.pdf

SUSSKIND,L. (2003) The Anthropic Landscape of String Theory   http://arxiv.org/pdf/hep–th/0302219.pdf

WEINBERG(2000) The Cosmological Constant Problems  http://arxiv.org/pdf/astro-ph/0005265v1.pdf

.

*****

Comments can be made either on the comments template AT THE BOTTOM OF THIS POST and/or by email to: markteverson@sohoarts.co.uk.

If your comments need to be changed after ‘Submit’ is clicked, please note that ‘Go back’ will not retrieve your submission, but just allows you to send another.

Comments made on this template are only visible to myself via my personal email. They do not appear on this website.

*****

.

.

Historical – Hoyle, Everett’s postulate, Carter, Copernican principle, etc.  Lemaitre,  Boltzmann, Dicke.

Quantum universe – Everett (1953), Edward Tryon (1973).      Inflation – de Sitter (1917), Starobinsky (1979)    Cosmological constant – Einstein (~1916)

DAVIES/WEINBERG/CARROLL/LIDDLE – sources

EINSTEIN (Cos Const) 1931

              EINSTEIN LAMBDA

Einstein’s original cosmological blunder [77]

Hubble, E.P., “A Relation between Distance and Radial Velocity among Extra-Galactic Nebulae”, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA,15, 168–173, (1929) [109]

Einstein, A. (1916) Annalen der Physik, vol. 354, Issue 7, pp.769-822

.

.

GUTH, LINDE, SUSSKIND, EVERETT

TEGMARK/WEINBERG/SUSSKIND/LINDE/SMOLIN/VILENKIN/REES/CARR

Though I am critical of Tegmark’s style, his cartoon does illustrate one point succinctly! (Actually, going on some of his sometimes erratic reference notes, I very much doubt the artwork is by his own hand!)

TEGMARK CARTOON [173]  Maybe I’ll draw a Level 2 right hand pane which has an “earth” & “people” that have evolved from very different physics!

.

This figure will be improved

HOME.doc”

.

INFLATION

STRING COSMOLOGY

COSMOLOGICAL CONSTANT

(+ PHYSICAL PARAMETERS )

Masses of elementary particles & coupling constants

Cosmological constant problem

My idea – Improve on Tegmark’s 4 levels. Extra universes can occur completely independently of others, whether others are there or not. Clearly therefore there is no time’s arrow correlation. If this is right, there should be 3 terms: Universe, Multiverse, Multi-universe. The multi-universe, or more correctly, the Multi-multiverse, is a kind of extension of the mathematical universe idea, ie. clearly a universe of no connection or knowledge to anything else. A fresh wave function.

The idea is that it QUALIFIES THE MEANING of Tegmark’s Level 4. His Level 4 could be interpreted as a purely abstract, mathematical construct. I propose that it should be viewed as the whole multiverse over again, but with not even a quantum connection. Imagine it were created by a different God, one that had no idea there existed another God or Gods, and could never know of their existence. An infinity of Gods, all of whom thought they were the only one!!

The question, “What happened before the Big Bang?” Well, a pub discussion answer is – “It just happened, out of nothing, no space no time”. My multi – multiverse is the same idea. If one multiverse “Just happens”, so can another. And another.

The multiverse has a notional connection to a previously existing universe. A multi-multiverse would therefore not need any relation to being eg. another vacuum energy state. It just is.

Philosophically, IF there exists one universe, ERGO why should there not be another? If one happens, so can another, but not ‘because’ of the first one ie. not as a result of it, but just that if one can be there, why not another?

Make another box chart of this idea. The Universe is interconnected boxes, representing eg. different Hubble areas in the same multi – multiverse of multiverses. Totally unconnected to these boxes are other multi – multiverses, some mathematical, impossible to imagine they could exist, & others, possibly biophilic, but with no causal connection.

Tegmark does not make obvious these points, though clearly that is what is intended. A clear revision of multiverse terms.

Tegmark’s multiverse works are accessible and his levels a useful device. But his numerous works are messy and imprecise in places. There is a need for a more succinct presentation of current thought on the multiverse.

Parameters of physics – more detail.

Quintessence

Black hole constraints on varying constants

SMOLIN/VILENKIN etc

Cyclic universe. Ekpyrotic/Inflation  – TUROK/STEINHARDT.

Other hierarchy problems eg. weak/gravity

An in-depth analysis of physical constants is necessary, in the values for speed of light, Planck’s constant, vacuum permittivity, mass of the electron and electric charge – with specific reference to the multiverse. The value for alpha is well documented, and is appropriate for this dissertation. cf. BARROW & many others.  Further, some discussion on why is, say, gravity ‘Gravity’ and not ‘Mass’? (Higgs etc.). What actually makes one ‘Dimension’ different to another dimension? What actually happens as mass and energy become one another? There’s a whole library in there!

eg. BARROW (1998) Cosmologies with Varying Light-Speed  http://arxiv.org/pdf/astro-ph/9811022v1.pdf

I need to understand how constants such as c, h, e, G & vacuum permittivity (as dimension-less values) are constrained within the mathematics, and are such ‘constants’ expected to be constant only within our Hubble sphere viz a viz Tegmark’s Level 2. I am going to need some knowledge of GUT & string to discuss how such things could emerge dynamically.

ARGUMENTS AGAINST THE MULTIVERSE CONCEPT

OBSERVATION

Implications/Philosophy of cosmology – so what? etc.

What is meant by ‘physical’ reality?

Cosmological constant problem – a personal thought – does Lamda only influence the body of the universe as an ‘anti-gravity’ or ‘repulsive force’ parameter, or could it have any other role? We do use the term ‘energy’ to describe it, after all. Another role may add another reason to the Turok et al explanation for its decay, and allow us to remain on the Big Bang concordance model.

I haven’t studied the Turok/Steinhardt ekpyrotic model, but it sounds a neat way to discuss the cosmological constant problem and do away with the Big Bang – or at least, going back to the start of the last cycle. There’s still the first cycle to deal with. My first impressions, though, are it’s a fudge!

9am 21/6/2013 An introduction. Assuming a big bang, we have a massive unit. To stop it withdrawing back to a black hole singularity we need a massive repulsive ‘cosmological constant’, & hence expansion. So why does inflation initiate?

So – was the universe born with the negative pressure? Lamda existed at the instant of big bang (otherwise it would never grow from the singularity)? And was then instrumental in inflation. Later, lamda controls how long the universe goes on.

NOTHING HAPPENS WITHOUT LAMDA

www.fundamentalcosmology.com

******

.

Comments:

. DISSERTATION QMUL

For a full copy, please contact me:  markteverson@sohoarts.co.uk

.

 A multiverse review,

with special reference to anthropic constraints

on the cosmological constant

.

Supervised by Professor Bernard Carr
Submitted September 2013 in part fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of
Master of Science in Astrophysics of Queen Mary University of London

.

Abstract
We review theories for the formation of our universe with its specific constraints
of physics from a particular set of parameters. We assess the claim that current
cosmology and string landscape scenarios suggest other universes in which the parametersvary, and suggest further conjectures not yet discussed in the multiverse arena.

.

1. INTRODUCTION
In this dissertation I review the scientific and philosophical grounds for the multiverse
concept. Not all versions of the multiverse hypothesis include inflation and
the cosmological constant. Noting that, I examine the central role taken by the
cosmological constant with respect to the anthropic argument (§ 4.3) and physical
parameters and coupling constants in relation to the multiverse (§ 3.2.1).
String theory and inflationary cosmology have developed rapidly over the last 35
years to now credibly forward the existence on scientific grounds of an ensemble
of cosmic regions, or universes. Physical parameters, like the masses of elementary
particles and the coupling constants, could vary between regions. The anthropic
principle (Carter 1974)[C], (a hypothesis developed in § 3.2.1 and § 4.3.1), states
the observed physics of our cosmic region is due to the selection by the observer of that particular physics.
The parameters of particle physics in the standard model are not god given fundamental
constants of nature. The values may just be our specified quantum state in
our region. Energy landscape scenarios with countless local minima may exist with
these variables, each relating to a specific quantum vacuum state. The local energy
minimum is the value of that minimum itself, the cosmological constant parameter,
Lambda (Λ), generally referred to as the energy density of the quantum vacuum (see § 4.2.1).
The standard concordance1 model immediately hits a problem. From the initial
singularity, such a massive unit must surely immediately recollapse back to a singularity
under its own gravity2? Further, the basic idea is that inflation commences
10−36 second after the Big Bang, and the vacuum energy causes this exponential
expansion. In the course of this inflation, bubble universes, or their variants, create
the multiverse. Does inflation need to occur at all?
The multiverse (or meta-universe) is the hypothetical set of infinite or finite sized possible universes. It is everything that exists (or indeed, could be contrived to
exist), be it space, time, matter, energy and the laws and constants of physics. The
specific multiverse hypothesis considered dictates the structure of that multiverse.
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the term was originally termed in 1895
by the American writer, philosopher and psychologist William James.3. For an
introduction to Multiverse, see (Carr 2009) or (Carr and Ellis 2008) [CE].
Though the cosmological constant (CC) is not necessary in all the multiverse
hypotheses, in the development of this dissertation, I shall attempt to show its role
in the evolution of any universe in which it is involved, and its required part in the
anthropic principle thesis.

. COSMOLOGICAL CONSTANT

This website compiled and researched entirely by Mark Teverson © 2013
One can envisage an energy landscape in these several hundred variables (Susskind 2003) or multiverses. Within this landscape there will be countless local minima, each corresponding to a possible quantum vacuum state, and each a possible low-energy physical world. One of the parameters determined by each local minimum is the value of that minimum itself, which receives a well-known interpretation in terms of Einstein’s cosmological constant, Λ.        DAVIES (2004)
EINSTEIN (Cos Const) 1931                            Einstein’s original cosmological blunder  [79]
.
Einstein,A.,“Zum kosmologischenProblem derallgemeinenRelativit ̈atstheorie”,Sitzungs- ber.Preuss.Akad.Wiss.,142,235–237,(1931)
Hubble, E.P., “A Relation between Distance and Radial Velocity among Extra-Galactic Nebulae”, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA,15, 168–173, (1929)
.
.
LAMBDA – Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe  NASA  http://lambda.gsfc.nasa.gov/product/map/current/

.

At one time the extreme flatness (Omega = 1) required at early epochs in order that the universe be even approximately flat now might have been regarded as fine tuning. But its very fineness spoke of a mechanistic explanation, such as is provided by inflation theory. It is possible that a mechanistic explanation may ultimately be forthcoming for the apparent extreme tuning of the cosmological constant, Lamda, although a revolution in fundamental physics is probably required to achieve it, Albrecht et al (2006). Alternatively, the fine tuning of Lamda may be an observer selection effect, Martel et al (1997), Weinberg (2005), Lineweaver (2007), Egan (2010).  BRADFORD (2010)

. OUR BIOPHILIC UNIVERSE

It is widely accepted that at least some of the parameters in the standard model of particle physics are not “god-given” fundamental constants of nature, but assume the values they do as a result of some form of symmetry breaking mechanism. Their observed values may thus reflect the particular quantum state in our region of the universe. If the universe attained its present state by cooling from a super-hot initial phase, then these symmetries may have been broken differently in different cosmic regions. There is little observational evidence for a domain structure of the universe within the scale of a Hubble volume, but on a much larger scale there could exist domains in which the coupling constants and particle masses in the standard model may be inconsistent with life. It would then be no surprise that we find ourselves located in a, possibly atypical, life-encouraging domain, as we could obviously not be located where life was impossible.  DAVIES (2004)

.

OUR PHYSICAL PARAMETERS

We contend that fine tuning actually consists of two distinct phenomena. The first phenomenon is the parameter sensitivity of the universe. This is the (apparent) property of the universe that small changes in the parameters of physics produce catastrophic changes in the evolved universe. In particular the complexity of the evolved universe, and hence its ability to support life, would be undermined by relatively small changes in the universal constants. Thus, parameter sensitivity is the claim that the target in parameter space which is compatible with a complex universe is small in some sense. The smallness of this target, if true, is a feature which requires explanation. The second, and quite distinct, phenomenon is that nature has somehow managed to hit this small target  which we will refer to as fine tuning . The actual constants in our universe have to be fine tuned to coincide with the requirements for a complex outcome. In other words, given that only special values for the parameters will do (i.e., given parameter sensitivity), nature had to contrive to adopt these particular values (i.e., nature is fine tuned).  BRADFORD (2010)

WHAT SORTS OF MULTIVERSE?

The lesson that can be learnt is that complex universes might result for values of the universal constants which depart greatly from the usually claimed fine-tuned bounds. Radically different, but still complex, universes may exist in these directions in parameter space. Support for this contention is provided by a number of radically different model universes which have been constructed by (cf. References):

Aguirre s Cold Big Bang Universe

The Weakless Universe of Harnik, Kribs and Perez (HKP)

Adams Parametric Survey of Stellar Stability

The Modified Quark Mass Universe of Jaffe, Jenkins and Kimchi (JJK)

WHAT PHYSICAL PARAMETERS?

DIMENSIONALITY

In general, there are very many ways of compactifying several extra dimensions. When additional degrees of freedom in string theory are taken into account, compactification may involve several hundred variables, all of which may vary from one region of the universe to another. These variables serve to fix the low-energy physics, by determining what sorts of particles exist, what their masses might be and the nature and strengths of the forces that act between them. The theory also permits compactification to spaces with other than three dimensions. Thus string theory predicts myriad possible low-energy worlds. Some might be quite like ours, but with slightly heavier electrons or a somewhat stronger weak force. Others might differ radically, and possess, say, five large (i.e. uncompactified) space dimensions and two species of photons.  DAVIES (2004)

DARK ENERGY & DARK MATTER

REPORT OF THE
DARK ENERGY TASK FORCE (2006)
Dark energy appears to be the dominant component of the physical Universe, yet there is no persuasive theoretical explanation for its existence or magnitude. The acceleration of the Universe is, along with dark matter, the observed phenomenon that most directly demonstrates that our theories of fundamental particles and gravity are either incorrect or incomplete. Most experts believe that nothing short of a revolution in our understanding of fundamental physics will be required to achieve a full understanding of the cosmic acceleration. For these reasons, the nature of dark energy ranks among the very most compelling of all outstanding problems in physical science. These circumstances demand an ambitious observational program to determine the dark energy properties as well as possible.
Dark Energy Task Force (DETF)  http://www.nsf.gov/mps/ast/detf.jsp
The Dark Energy Task Force (DETF) was established by the Astronomy and Astrophysics Advisory Committee (AAAC) and the High Energy Physics Advisory Panel (HEPAP) as a joint sub-committee to advise the Department of Energy, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and the National Science Foundation on future dark energy research.
.

BLACK HOLES & GRAVITY

Another multiverse model has been discussed by Smolin. He proposes that “baby”universes can sprout from existing ones via the mechanism of gravitational collapse. According to the classical picture, when a star implodes to form a black hole, a spacetime singularity results in the interior of the hole. Smolin suggests that a quantum treatment would lead instead to the nucleation of a tiny new region of inflating space, connected to our space via a wormhole. Subsequent evaporation of the black hole by the Hawking process severs the wormhole, thereby spatially disconnecting the baby universe from ours. Furthermore, following Wheeler (‘Some Strangeness in the Proportion’, H. Woolf, ed., Addison-Wesley, 1980),  Smolin proposes that the violence of gravitational collapse might ‘reprocess’ the laws of physics randomly, producing small changes in values of parameters such as particle masses and coupling constants. Thus the baby universe will inherit the physics of its parent, but with small random variations, similar to genetic drift in biological evolution. This process could continue ad infinitum, with baby universes going on to produce their own progeny. It would also imply that our universe is the product of an earlier gravitational collapse episode in another universe. Those universes whose physical parameters favoured black hole production, for example by encouraging the formation of large stars, would produce more progeny, implying that among the ensemble of universes with all possible variations of the laws of physics, those universes with prolific black hole producti on would represent the largest volume of space.   SMOLIN, DAVIES
.

STRING & M THEORY

After many desperate attempts to prove that the cosmological constant must vanish, now we face an even more complicated problem. We must understand why the cosmological constant, or the slowly changing dark energy, is at least 120 orders smaller than the Planck density  KALLOSH, LINDE (2002)

.

Each bubble nucleation proceeding from a very large vacuum energy represents a symbolic “ball” rolling down the landscape from some dizzy height at random, and ending up in one of the valleys, or vacuum states. So the ensemble of physical by-laws available from string theory becomes actualized as an ensemble of pocket universes, each with its own distinctive low-energy physics. The total number of such universes may be infinite, and the total variety of  possible low-energy physics finite, but stupendously big.

INFLATION

In the variant known as eternal inflation (Andrei Linde) our “universe” is just one particular vacuum bubble within a vast – probably infinite – assemblage of bubbles, or pocket universes. If one could take a god’s-eye-view of this multiverse of universes, inflation would be continuing frenetically in the overall superstructure, driven by exceedingly large vacuum energies, while here and there “bubbles” of low-, or at least lower-, energy vacuum would nucleate quantum mechanically from the eternally inflating region, and evolve into pocket universes. When eternal inflation is put together with the complex landscape of string theory, there is clearly a mechanism for generating universes with different local by-laws, i.e. different low-energy physics.   DAVIES (2004)

.

DAVIES - INFLATION png

DAVIES (2004)

RELIGION

1039-15351

I am a Neophyte. I wish only to learn & create.

“The universe is governed by the laws of science. The laws may have been decreed by God, but God does not intervene to break the laws.” HAWKING (Reuters 2008)

.

……two things are achieved. The first is that it is inappropriate to be surprised by fine tuning. It is inevitable given the existence of complexity. The second relates to the argument from design. The argument from design essentially claims that anything as complex as our universe must have had a Designer/Creator. Some Creationists have argued that the observed fine tunings strengthen their case. But we now see that this is not so. Since fine tuning is inevitable given complexity, the argument from design is not strengthened [or weakened ed.] by the observation of fine tuning.  BRADFORD (2010)

PHILOSOPHY

“There is no logical impossibility in the supposition that the whole of life is a dream, in which we ourselves create all the objects that come before us. But although this is not logically impossible, there is no reason whatever to suppose that it is true; and it is, in fact, a less simple hypothesis, viewed as a means of accounting for the facts of our own life, than the common-sense hypothesis that there really are objects independent of us, whose action on us causes our sensations.” Bertrand Russell, The Problems of Philosophy (1912)

.

THE ANCIENT WAY

 

OBSERVATION & EXPERIMENT

“Every astronomer will remember where he or she was when they first heard the WMAP results. I certainly will…. For cosmology, the formal announcement today represents a ‘rite of passage’ from speculation to precision science.” JOHN BAHCALL  Feb. 11th 2003 WMAP press conference

PEIRIS et al (2013) Planck 2013 results .XVI .Cosmological parameters  http://arxiv.org/pdf/1303.5076v1.pdf

LAMBDA – Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe  NASA  http://lambda.gsfc.nasa.gov/product/map/current/

VARYING LIGHT SPEED

QUANTUM GRAVITY

The world–view shared by most physicists is that the laws of nature are uniquely described by some special action principle that completely determines the vacuum, the spectrum of elementary particles, the forces and the symmetries. Experience with quantum electrodynamics and quantum chromodynamics suggests a world with a small number of parameters and a unique ground state. For the most part, string theorists bought into this paradigm. At first it was hoped that string theory would be unique and explain the various parameters that quantum field theory left unexplained. When this turned out to be false, the belief developed that there were exactly five string theories with names like type–2a and Heterotic. This also turned out to be wrong. Instead, a continuum of theories were discovered that smoothly interpolated between the five and also included a theory called M–Theory. The language changed a little. One no longer spoke of different theories, but rather different solutions of some master theory. The space of these solutions is called The Moduli Space of Supersymmetric Vacua.        SUSSKIND (2003)
.
General Relativity and Quantum Cosmology (Authors and titles for recent submissions 2013) http://arxiv.org/list/gr-qc/recent

MATHEMATICAL MULTIVERSES

NO SPACE? NO TIME?

Before the Big Bang (2004)(Article) http://discovermagazine.com/2004/feb/cover/#.UTyGsRk9n_4

WAVE FUNCTION OF A MULTIVERSE

Quantum Cosmology (Article)  http://www.damtp.cam.ac.uk/research/gr/public/qg_qc.html

Quantum Gravity (Cambridge review)  http://www.damtp.cam.ac.uk/research/gr/public/qg_home.html

.

BIBLIOGRAPHY & LIST OF ALL REFERENCES

This website researched and compiled entirely by Mark Teverson © 2013

It is as a resource for my masters’ dissertation

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Universe or Multiverse, Bernard Carr (Ed.) (Cambridge 2007)

The Anthropic Cosmological Principle, John Barrow & Frank Tipler (Oxford 1986)

Cosmology, Steven Weinberg (Oxford 2008)

String Theory and M -Theory, Becker, Becker & Schwarz (Cambridge 2007)

String Theory, Barton Zwiebach (Cambridge 2009)

Quantum Mechanics & Path Integrals, Richard Feynman & Albert Hibbs (Dover 1965/2010)

300 Years of Gravitation, S.W.Hawking & W.Israel (Eds.) (Cambridge 1987)

Introduction to Modern Astrophysics, Carroll & Ostlie (Pearson 2007)

.

ACADEMIC PAPERS

  1. ADAMS,F.C (2008) : Stars In Other Universes: Stellar structure with different fundamental constants  http://arxiv.org/pdf/0807.3697v1.pdf
  2. AGUIRRE (2001) The Cold Big-Bang Cosmology as a Counter-example to Several Anthropic Arguments  http://arxiv.org/pdf/astro-ph/0106143v3.pdf
  3. ALBRECHT & PHILLIPS Origin of probabilities and their application to the multiverse (2012) http://arxiv.org/pdf/1212.0953v1.pdf
  4. ALBRECHT & MAGUEIJO (1999) A time varying speed of light as a solution to cosmological puzzles  http://arxiv.org/pdf/astro-ph/9811018v2.pdf
  5. ALBRECHT (2004) Can the universe afford inflation?  http://arxiv.org/pdf/hep-th/0405270v2.pdf
  6. ALBRECHT et al (2006) REPORT OF THE DARK ENERGY TASK FORCE.pdf  http://arxiv.org/ftp/astro-ph/papers/0609/0609591.pdf
  7. ALBRECHT,A. & HERNLEY,A. (2013) Toy model studies of tuning and typicality with an eye toward cosmology  http://arxiv.org/pdf/1301.5929.pdf
  8. ALI, HOSSAIN, TARIQ (2012) Congeniality Bounds on Quark Masses from Nucleosynthesis  http://arxiv.org/pdf/1212.2753.pdf
  9. ALTARELLI,G. (2013) Collider Physics within the Standard Model: a Primer  http://arxiv.org/pdf/1303.2842v1.pdf
  10. ANTONOV, A. (2012) Earth, portals, parallel universes  http://www.scihub.org/AJSIR/PDF/2012/6/AJSIR-3-6-464-473.pdf
  11. ASHTEKAR,A. (2004) Gravity and the Quantum  http://arxiv.org/pdf/gr-qc/0410054v2.pdf
  12. ASHTEKARA et al (2006) Quantum Nature of the Big Bang  http://arxiv.org/pdf/gr-qc/0602086v2.pdf
  13. ASHTEKAR (2007) An Introduction to Loop Quantum Gravity through Cosmology  http://arxiv.org/pdf/gr-qc/0702030v2.pdf
  14. BALASHOV, YURI (1998), Two Theories of the Universe, (Essay review) http://yuri.myweb.uga.edu/Papers/kragh_review.pdf
  15. BANKS,T DINE,M. MOTL,L. (2000)  On Anthropic Solutions of the Cosmological Constant Problem  http://arxiv.org/pdf/hep-th/0007206v1.pdf
  16. BARNES,L. (2011) The Fine-Tuning of the Universe for Intelligent Life  http://www.publish.csiro.au/?act=view_file&file_id=AS12015.pdf
  17. BARROW (1998) Cosmologies with Varying Light-Speed  http://arxiv.org/pdf/astro-ph/9811022v1.pdf
  18. BARROW, J. (1998) Cosmology and the Origin of Life  http://arxiv.org/pdf/astro-ph/9811461v1.pdf
  19. BARROW (1998) Varying G and Other Constants http://arxiv.org/pdf/gr-qc/9711084v1.pdf
  20. BARROW & LEVIN (1999) Chaos and order in a finite universe  http://arxiv.org/pdf/astro-ph/9907288.pdf
  21. BARROW et al (2001) Further Evidence for Cosmological Evolution of the Fine Structure Constant  http://arxiv.org/pdf/astro-ph/0012539.pdf
  22. BARROW, J. (2002) Constants and Variations: From Alpha to Omega  http://arxiv.org/pdf/gr-qc/0209080v1.pdf
  23. BARROW & WEBB (2005) Inconstant constants (article) http://www.scienceandsociety.org/web/Library_files/Inconstant_Constants.pdf
  24. BARROW, J. (2005) Cosmological Bounds on Spatial Variations of Physical Constants  http://arxiv.org/pdf/astro-ph/0503434v3.pdf
  25. BARROW & SHAW (2008) Varying Alpha: New Constraints from Seasonal Variations  http://arxiv.org/pdf/0806.4317v2.pdf
  26. BARROW & SHAW (2011) A New Solution of the Cosmological Constant Problems  http://arxiv.org/pdf/1007.3086v3.pdf
  27. BARROW, SHAW (2011) The Value of the Cosmological Constant  http://arxiv.org/pdf/1105.3105v1.pdf
  28. BARROW, J. SLOANE, D. (2013) Bouncing Anisotropic Universes with Varying Constants  http://arxiv.org/pdf/1304.6699.pdf
  29. BAUMANN, D. (2009) TASI Lectures on Inflation  http://physicslearning2.colorado.edu/tasi/tasi_2009/Attachments/Bauman_01_TASIV7.pdf
  30. Blanco-Pillado,J.  Schwartz-Perlov, D.  Vilenkin,A. (2010) Transdimensional Tunneling in the Multiverse http://arxiv.org/pdf/0912.4082v2.pdf
  31. BLUDMAN,S. & ROOS,M. (2001) SMOOTH ENERGY: COSMOLOGICAL CONSTANT OR QUINTESSENCE?  http://iopscience.iop.org/0004-637X/547/1/77/pdf/0004-637X_547_1_77.pdf
  32. BOJOWALD,M. (2003)  QUANTUM GRAVITY AND THE BIG BANG  http://arxiv.org/pdf/astro-ph/0309478v1.pdf
  33. BOSTROM,N. Preprints  http://www.anthropic-principle.com/?q=resources/preprints
  34. BOSTROM,N. (2005) Multiverse and String Theory  http://www.anthropic-principle.com/preprints/spacetime.pdf
  35. BOSTROM,N. (2003) Are we living in a computer simulation?  http://philpapers.org/rec/BOSAWL
  36. BOUSSO & FREIVOGEL (2006) A paradox in the global description of the multiverse  http://arxiv.org/pdf/hep-th/0610132v2.pdf
  37. BOUSSO, POLCHINSKI (2000) Quantization of Four-form Fluxes and Dynamical Neutralization of the Cosmological Constant  http://arxiv.org/pdf/hep-th/0004134.pdf
  38. BOUSSO,R. (2012) Complementarity Is Not Enough  http://arxiv.org/pdf/1207.5192v2.pdf
  39. BOUSSO, HARNIK, KRIBS, PEREZ (2012) Predicting the Cosmological Constant from the Causal Entropic Principle  http://dev.related-work.net/arxiv:hep-th_0702115
  40. BOUSSO, R. SUSSKIND, L. (2012) The Multiverse Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics http://arxiv.org/pdf/1105.3796v3.pdf
  41. BOUSSO, R. HAWKING, S. (1999) Lorentzian Condition in Quantum Gravity  http://arxiv.org/pdf/hep-th/9807148v1.pdf
  42. BRADFORD,R.A.W. (2010) Fine Tuning is Inevitable in a Complex Universe  http://rickbradford.co.uk/InevitabilityofFineTuningJun.pdf
  43. BRICKER, P. (2005) Lewis, Plurality of Worlds  http://www.umass.edu/philosophy/PDF/Bricker/Lewis,%20Plurality%20of%20Worlds.pdf
  44. BRICKER,P. (1986) DAVID LEWIS:ON THE PLURALITY OF WORLDS  http://www.umass.edu/philosophy/PDF/Bricker/Lewis,%20Plurality%20of%20Worlds.pdf
  45. BRUSTEIN,R. de ALWIS Landscape of string theory and the wave function of the universe http://arxiv.org/pdf/hep-th/0511093v2.pdf
  46. CAI, Y. EASSON, D. BRANDENBERGER, R. (2012) Towards a Nonsingular Bouncing Cosmology http://arxiv.org/pdf/1206.2382v2.pdf
  47. CAPOZIELLO et al (2011) Primordial black holes, astrophysical systems and the Eddington-Weinberg relation  http://arxiv.org/pdf/1110.1175v1.pdf
  48. CARR & REES (1979) (Article) The anthropic principle and the structure of the physical world  http://www.scribd.com/doc/45200175/Lord-Rees-The-anthropic-principle-and-the-structure-of-the-physical-world
  49. CARR, REES (1979)(Review, references) The anthropic principle and the structure of the physical world http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v278/n5705/abs/278605a0.html
  50. CARR, B.J. (1983)  Soliton solutions and cosmological gravitational waves  http://diposit.ub.edu/dspace/bitstream/2445/12401/1/79588.pdf
  51. CARR,B.J. (2001) PRIMORDIAL BLACK HOLES AS A PROBE OF THE EARLY UNIVERSE AND A VARYING GRAVITATIONAL CONSTANT  http://arxiv.org/pdf/astro-ph/0102390v2.pdf
  52. CARR,B.J. (2003) Primordial Black Holes as a Probe of Cosmology and High Energy Physics  http://arxiv.org/pdf/astro-ph/0310838v1.pdf
  53. CARR,B.J. (2005) Primordial Black Holes – Recent Developments  http://arxiv.org/pdf/astro-ph/0504034v1.pdf
  54. CARR,B.J. (2005) Primordial Black Holes: Do They Exist and Are They Useful?  http://arxiv.org/pdf/astro-ph/0511743v1.pdf
  55. CARR,B.J. (2007) UNIVERSE OR MULTIVERSE? Introduction http://www.thedivineconspiracy.org/Z5227C.pdf
  56. CARR, B. ELLIS, G. (2008) UNIVERSE OR MULTIVERSE http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1468-4004.2008.49229_2.x/pdf
  57. CARR,B.J. (Slides) Primordial Black Holes: Do They Exist and Are They Useful?  http://www-utap.phys.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp/~yamada59/Presentation/23June/Carr_Yamada59.pdf
  58. CARR (Slides) Astrophysical & Cosmological consequences of Primordial Black Holes  http://www3.mpifr-bonn.mpg.de/div/meetings/COST3rdWGMeeting/3rdWGTalks/3rd_WG_Carr.pdf
  59. CARR,B.J. (2011) Generalized Uncertainty Principle and Self-dual Black Holes  http://arxiv.org/pdf/1107.0708v1.pdf
  60. CARR,B. (2012) LEMAÎTRE’S PRESCIENCE: THE BEGINNING AND END OF THE COSMOS  http://whyisthereanything.org/f/carr-lemaitre.pdf
  61. CARROLL,S.M. (2001) The Cosmological Constant  http://www.emis.ams.org/journals/LRG/Articles/lrr-2001-1/download/lrr-2001-1Color.pdf
  62. CARROLL,S.M. (2004) Why is the Universe Accelerating?  http://www.astro.caltech.edu/~george/ay21/readings/carroll.pdf
  63. CARTER,B. (1967/2007) THE SIGNIFICANCE OF NUMERICAL COINCIDENCES IN NATURE Part I  http://arxiv.org/pdf/0710.3543v1.pdf
  64. CARTER (1974) LARGE NUMBER COINCIDENCES & THE ANTHROPIC PRINCIPLE IN COSMOLOGY  http://articles.adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-iarticle_query?1974IAUS…63..291C&data_type=PDF_HIGH&whole_paper=YES&type=PRINTER&filetype=.pdf
  65. CARTER,B. (2007) Objective and subjective time in anthropic reasoning.  http://arxiv.org/pdf/0708.2367.pdf
  66. CASTRO, C. (2009) The cosmological constant and Pioneer anomaly from Weyl spacetimes and Mach’s principle  http://www.academia.edu/2968995/The_cosmological_constant_and_Pioneer_anomaly_from_Weyl_spacetimes_and_Machs_principle
  67. CHANG (2007) Fractal Relativity, Generalized Noether Theorem and New Research of Space-Time  http://arxiv.org/ftp/arxiv/papers/0707/0707.0136.pdf
  68. CHANG,S. KLEBAN,M. LEVI,T. (2007) When Worlds Collide  http://arxiv.org/pdf/0712.2261v1.pdf
  69. CHEN et al (2012) A global view on the search for de Sitter vacua in (Type IIA) string theory  http://download.springer.com/static/pdf/747
  70. CIRKOVIC, M, BOSTROM, N  Cosmological constant and the final anthropic hypothesis (1999)  http://xxx.lanl.gov/abs/gr-qc/9906042
  71. CIRKOVIC, Milan  Cosmological constant and the final anthropic hypothesis (1999) (slides) http://www.slideshare.net/UnitB166ER/cosmological-constant-and-the-final-anthropic-hypothesis-by-milan-cirkovic-an-nick-bostrom
  72. CIRKOVIC,M. (2004) THE ANTHROPIC PRINCIPLE AND THE DURATION OF THE COSMOLOGICAL PAST  http://mcirkovic.aob.rs/Cirkovic2005_AAT.pdf
  73. CIRKOVIC,M. (2006) Too early? on the apparent conflict of astrobiology and cosmology  http://mcirkovic.aob.rs/Cirkovic06_BiolPhil.pdf
  74. CIRKOVIC,M. (2002) THE THERMODYNAMICAL ARROW OF TIME: REINTERPRETING THE BOLTZMANN-SCHUETZ ARGUMENT  http://arxiv.org/pdf/astro-ph/0212511v1.pdf
  75. CLAYTON, DONALD  Journal Publications RESEARCH  http://www.clemson.edu/ces/astro/People/Clayton/JournalPub.pdf
  76. COOREY (2007) (SLIDES) Observational Tests of Cosmic Inflation  http://www.cooray.org/Cooray-Marseille.pdf
  77. COPELAND, LIDDLE, LYTH (1994) False Vacuum Inflation with Einstein Gravity  http://arxiv.org/pdf/astro-ph/9401011v1.pdf
  78. COULE (2012) On initial conditions for inflationary and bouncing cosmologies  http://arxiv.org/pdf/0706.0205.pdf
  79. CRAIG, W.L,  Vilenkin’s Cosmic Vision: A Review Essay of Many Worlds http://www.reasonablefaith.org/vilenkins-cosmic-vision-a-review-essay-of-many-worlds-in-one
  80. CSOTO, OBERHUMMER, SCHLATTL  (2000) Fine-tuning the basic forces of nature through the triple-alpha process in red giant stars  http://arxiv.org/pdf/nucl-th/0010052.pdf
  81. DAVIES, DAVIS, LINEWEAVER (2002) Cosmology: Black holes constrain varying constants  http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v418/n6898/full/418602a.html
  82. DAVIES, P.C.W. (2004),  MULTIVERSE COSMOLOGICAL MODELS    http://arxiv.org/ftp/astro-ph/papers/0403/0403047.pdf
  83. DAVIES,P. (2004) (Article) The Arrow of Time  http://cosmos.asu.edu/publications/papers/arrow_of_time.pdf
  84. DAVIS, DAVIES, LINEWEAVER (2003)  Black hole versus cosmological horizon entropy  http://arxiv.org/pdf/astro-ph/0305121v2.pdf
  85. DECKHERT et al (2013) Delay Equations of the Wheeler-Feynman Type  http://arxiv.org/pdf/1212.6285v1.pdf
  86. DEUTSCH, D. (2001) The Structure of the Multiverse  http://xxx.lanl.gov/pdf/quant-ph/0104033v1.pdf
  87. DeWITT, Cecile (2008) Quantum Gravity, Yesterday and Today  http://arxiv.org/pdf/0805.2935v1.pdf
  88. DINE, BANKS, MOTL (2000) On Anthropic Solutions of the Cosmological Constant Problem  http://arxiv.org/pdf/hep-th/0007206.pdf
  89. DISSERTORI & ZURICH (2004) The Strong Coupling Constant (An Experimentalist’s Review) (SLIDES)  http://ipht.cea.fr/conferences/conf-Itzykson/en/CI_9/dissertori.pdf
  90. DONA & SPEZIALE (2010) Introductory lectures to loop quantum gravity  http://arxiv.org/pdf/1007.0402v2.pdf
  91. DONOGHUE, DUTTA, ROSS, TEGMARK (2010)  Likely values of the Higgs vev  http://arxiv.org/pdf/0903.1024.pdf
  92. DONOGHUE, J. (2004) Dynamics of M-theory vacua  http://arxiv.org/pdf/hep-th/0310203v1.pdf
  93. DONOGHUE,J. (2007)The fine-tuning problems of particle physics and anthropic mechanisms  http://arxiv.org/pdf/0710.4080v1.pdf
  94. DONOGHUE,J. (2010) Gravity & Running Coupling Constants (SLIDES) http://www.ihes.fr/~vanhove/Slides/Donoghue-ihes-mars2011.pdf
  95. DURRER, R. (1998) The Cosmological Constant and Galaxy Formation http://theory.physics.unige.ch/~durrer/papers/cosconstant.pdf
  96. DYSON,L KLEBAN,M. SUSSKIND,L. Disturbing Implications of a Cosmological Constant  http://arxiv.org/pdf/hep-th/0208013v3.pdf
  97. EGAN,C. (2010) (Thesis) Dark Energy, Anthropic Selection Effects, Entropy and Life  http://arxiv.org/pdf/1005.0745v1.pdf
  98. EINSTEIN,A. (1931) Original cosmological constant paper  http://nausikaa2.mpiwg-berlin.mpg.de/cgi-bin/toc/toc.x.cgi?dir=R583HGCS&step=thumb
  99. EINSTEIN, A. (1916)
    Annalen der Physik, vol. 354, Issue 7, pp.769-822

    http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/andp.19163540702/pdf

  100. ELLIS, G. STOEGER, W. (2010) A Note on Infinities in Eternal Inflation  http://arxiv.org/pdf/1001.4590v1.pdf
  101. ELLIS,G & ELST,H (2008) COSMOLOGICAL MODELS   http://arxiv.org/pdf/gr-qc/9812046v5.pdf    (Cargese lectures 1998)
  102. ELLIS,G. BRUNDRIT,G. (1979) Life in the Infinite Universe  http://articles.adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-iarticle_query?1979QJRAS..20…37E&data_type=PDF_HIGH&whole_paper=YES&type=PRINTER&filetype=.pdf
  103. ELLIS, G. (2006) Issues in the Philosophy of Cosmology  http://arxiv.org/pdf/astro-ph/0602280v2.pdf
  104. ELLIS, G. (2011)  Does the Multiverse Really Exist?  Scientific American, vol. 305, issue 2, pp. 38-43 http://faculty1.coloradocollege.edu/~sburns/Courses/Summer12/PC120/images/SciAm_Multiverse.pdf
  105. EVERETT, H. (1953) (Dissertation), The Many-Worlds Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics,  http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/manyworlds/pdf/dissertation.pdf
  106. F.HOYLE (1953), On Nuclear Reactions Occurring in very Hot Stars. (1) The Synthesis of Elements from Carbon to Nickel   http://articles.adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-iarticle_query?1954ApJS….1..121H&data_type=PDF_HIGH&whole_paper=YES&type=PRINTER&filetype=.pdf
  107. FEENEY, JOHNSON, MORTLOCK, PEIRIS (2011) First Observational Tests of Eternal Inflation  http://arxiv.org/pdf/1012.1995v3.pdf
  108. FEENEY, PEIRIS, VERDE (2013) Is there evidence for additional neutrino species from cosmology? http://arxiv.org/pdf/1302.0014v1.pdf
  109. FRAMPTON (2010) POSSIBLE SOLUTION OF DARK MATTER, THE SOLUTION OF DARK ENERGY AND GELL-MANN AS GREAT THEORETICIAN  http://arxiv.org/pdf/1004.1910.pdf
  110. FRANK, A (2008) (Article) 3 Theories  http://discovermagazine.com/2008/apr/25-3-theories-that-might-blow-up-the-big-bang#.UTtNkBk9n_4
  111. FREIVOGEL & SUSSKIND (2004) A Framework for the Landscape  http://arxiv.org/pdf/hep-th/0408133v2.pdf
  112. Freivogel,B. Kleban,M. Martınez,M.and Leonard Susskind (2005) Observational Consequences of a Landscape  http://arxiv.org/pdf/hep-th/0505232v2.pdf
  113. FREIVOGEL,B. (2011) Making predictions in the multiverse  http://arxiv.org/pdf/1105.0244v2.pdf
  114. FREIVOGEL,B. (2012) Predictions from Eternal Inflation (SLIDES) http://wwwth.mpp.mpg.de/members/strings/strings2012/strings_files/program/Talks/Thursday/Freivogel.pdf
  115. GABELLA, MAXIME (2006) The Randall-Sundrum Model  http://arxiv.org/pdf/hep-th/0610051v2.pdf
  116. GARDNER, A. CONLON, J. (2013) Cosmological Natural Selection and the Purpose of the Universe  http://www.zoo.ox.ac.uk/group/gardner/publications/GardnerConlon_2013.pdf
  117. GARRETT,L (2007) An Exceptionally Simple Theory of Everything  http://arxiv.org/pdf/0711.0770v1.pdf
  118. GARRIGA, J. VILENKIN, A. (2008) Prediction and explanation in the multiverse  http://arxiv.org/pdf/0711.2559v3.pdf
  119. GARRIGA, J. VILENKIN, A. (2004) Testable anthropic predictions for dark energy http://arxiv.org/pdf/astro-ph/0210358v3.pdf
  120. GARRIGA, VILENKIN (2005)  Anthropic prediction for Lamda and the Q catastrophe  http://arxiv.org/pdf/hep-th/0508005v1.pdf
  121. GARRIGA, J. VILENKIN, A. (2001) Solutions to the cosmological constant problems  http://arxiv.org/pdf/hep-th/0011262v3.pdf
  122. GARRIGA, VILENKIN (2000) On likely values of the cosmological constant  http://prd.aps.org/abstract/PRD/v61/i8/e083502
  123. GARRIGA, VILENKIN (1998) Recycling Universe http://arxiv.org/pdf/astro-ph/9707292v1.pdf
  124. GARRIGA, J. GUTH, A. VILENKIN, A (2006) Eternal inflation, bubble collisions, and the persistence of memory  http://arxiv.org/pdf/hep-th/0612242.pdf
  125. GAUTASON, F. (2013) Cosmological Constant, Near Brane Behavior and Singularities  http://arxiv.org/pdf/1301.5647v1.pdf
  126. GEDALIA, JENKINS, PEREZ (2011) Why do we observe a weak force? The hierarchy problem in the multiverse  http://arxiv.org/pdf/1010.2626.pdf
  127. GIBBONS,G.W. & TUROK,N (2007) The Measure Problem in Cosmology  http://arxiv.org/pdf/hep-th/0609095v2.pdf
  128. GILLARD & MARTIN (2012) DARK MATTER, ELKO FIELDS AND WEINBERG’S QUANTUM FIELD THEORY FORMALISM  http://arxiv.org/pdf/1012.5352v3.pdf
  129. GOTT, J. Richard, “Implications of the Copernican principle for our future prospects”, Nature 363 (27 May): 315-319, 1993, http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/363315a0
  130. GREENE,B. EASTHER,R. et al (2004) String Windings in the Early Universe  http://arxiv.org/pdf/hep-th/0409121v1.pdf
  131. GUTH,A. (1981) Inflationary universe- A possible solution to the horizon and flatness problems  http://prd.aps.org/pdf/PRD/v23/i2/p347_1
  132. GUTH,A. KAISER,D. (2005)  Inflationary Cosmology: Exploring the Universe from the Smallest to the Largest Scales  http://arxiv.org/pdf/astro-ph/0502328v1.pdf
  133. GUTH,A. (2001) Eternal Inflation  http://arxiv.org/pdf/astro-ph/0101507v1.pdf
  134. HALLIWELL, J. (2009) INTRODUCTORY LECTURES ON QUANTUM COSMOLOGY http://arxiv.org/pdf/0909.2566v1.pdf
  135. HARLOW, D. SUSSKIND, L. (2010) Crunches, Hats, and a Conjecture  http://arxiv.org/pdf/1012.5302v1.pdf
  136. HARNIK, KRIBS, PEREZ (2006) A Universe Without Weak Interactions  http://arxiv.org/pdf/hep-ph/0604027v1.pdf
  137. HARTLE,J. & HAWKING,S. (1983), Wave Function of the Universe, ftp://ftp.phy.pku.edu.cn/pub/Books/%CE%EF%C0%ED/%CE%EF%C0%ED%D1%A7%CA%B7/Phy_Rev_100%C4%EA%BE%AB%D1%A1/pdf/07/063.pdf
  138. HARTLE, J. (2003) Theories of Everything and Hawking’s Wave Function of the Universe http://arxiv.org/pdf/gr-qc/0209047v1.pdf
  139. HAWKING & TUROK (Article) The Hawking-Turok Instanton Theory  http://web.uvic.ca/~jtwong/Hawking-Turok.htm
  140. HAWKING, MLODINOW Model-dependent realism (Review) ‘The Grand Design’ http://www.academia.edu/793717/Review_of_The_Grand_Design_for_The_Journal_of_Consciousness_Studies
  141. HAWKING,S. (2005) Information Loss in Black Holes  http://arxiv.org/pdf/hep-th/0507171v2.pdf
  142. HAWKING,S.(2003) Cosmology from the Top Down,  http://arxiv.org/ftp/astro-ph/papers/0305/0305562.pdf
  143. HINCHLIFFE & MANOHAR (2000) The QCD Coupling Constant  http://arxiv.org/pdf/hep-ph/0004186.pdf
  144. HOGAN, C.J. Why the universe is just so http://arxiv.org/pdf/astro-ph/9909295v2.pdf
  145. HOYLE,F. (1953)
    On Nuclear Reactions Occuring in Very Hot STARS.I. the Synthesis of Elements from Carbon to Nickel. http://articles.adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-iarticle_query?1954ApJS….1..121H&data_type=PDF_HIGH&whole_paper=YES&type=PRINTER&filetype=.pdf
  146. HUBER & SHAFI (2001) Higgs mechanism and bulk gauge boson masses in the Randall-Sundrum model  http://sro.sussex.ac.uk/1636/1/Huber_Higgs_mechanism.pdf
  147. HUBBLE, E.P.(1929), “A Relation between Distance and Radial Velocity among Extra-Galactic Nebulae”, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA,15, 168–173, (1929)  http://www.pnas.org/content/15/3/168.full.pdf+html
  148. JACQUES et al (2007) Wheeler’s delayed-choice thought experiment: Experimental realization and theoretical analysis  http://arxiv.org/pdf/0710.2597v1.pdf
  149. JAFFE, JENKINS, KIMCHI (2009) Quark Masses- An Environmental Impact Statement  http://arxiv.org/pdf/0809.1647v4.pdf
  150. JENKINS,A. (2009) Anthropic constraints on fermion masses   http://arxiv.org/pdf/0906.0029v1.pdf
  151. KALLOSH, LINDE (2002) M-theory, Cosmological Constant and Anthropic Principle http://arxiv.org/pdf/hep-th/0208157v3.pdf
  152. KIBBLE, HAGEN, GURALNIK (1964) Global Conservation Laws & Massless Particles  http://prl.aps.org/pdf/PRL/v13/i20/p585_1
  153. KIBBLE,T. (1967) Symmetry Breaking in Non-Abelian Gauge Theories  http://prola.aps.org/abstract/PR/v155/i5/p1554_1
  154. KLEBAN, LEVI, SIGURDSON (2011) Observing the Multiverse with Cosmic Wakes http://arxiv.org/pdf/1109.3473v1.pdf
  155. KNOBE, J. VILENKIN, A. (2004) Philosophical Implications of Inflationary Cosmology  http://philsci-archive.pitt.edu/1149/1/cosmology.pdf
  156. KOMATSU et al (2010) SEVEN-YEAR WILKINSON MICROWAVE ANISOTROPY PROBE (WMAP1) OBSERVATIONS: COSMOLOGICAL INTERPRETATION  http://arxiv.org/pdf/1001.4538.pdf
  157. KRAGH,H. (2010),  An anthropic myth: Fred Hoyle’s carbon-12 resonance level,  http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00407-010-0068-8?LI=true#page-1
  158. KRAUSS,L. (1998) THE END OF THE AGE PROBLEM, AND THE CASE FOR A COSMOLOGICAL CONSTANT REVISITED  http://iopscience.iop.org/0004-637X/501/2/461/pdf/0004-637X_501_2_461.pdf
  159. LANGLOIS, D. (2004) Inflation, quantum fluctuations and cosmological perturbations  http://arxiv.org/pdf/hep-th/0405053v1.pdf
  160. LARSEN,G. et al (2011) The Cosmological Constant in the Quantum Multiverse http://arxiv.org/pdf/1107.3556v3.pdf
  161. LeCLAIRE,A. BERNARD,D. (2013) Scrutinizing the Cosmological Constant Problem and a possible resolution  http://arxiv.org/pdf/1211.4848v3.pdf
  162. LEMAITRE,G. (1934) Evolution of the Expanding Universe http://www.pnas.org/content/20/1/12.full.pdf+html
  163. LEWIS,D. (1975) The Paradoxes of Time Travel (Article)  http://www.csus.edu/indiv/m/merlinos/Paradoxes%20of%20Time%20Travel.pdf
  164. LIDDLE & FRAZER (2011) Exploring a string-like landscape  http://arxiv.org/pdf/1101.1619v2.pdf
  165. LIDDLE & LI (2012) Observational constraints on K-inflation models  http://arxiv.org/pdf/1204.6214v3.pdf
  166. LIDDLE et al (2008) Triple unification of inflation, dark matter, and dark energy using a single field  http://arxiv.org/pdf/0804.0869v1.pdf
  167. LIDDLE,A.R. (2004) How many cosmological parameters?  http://arxiv.org/pdf/astro-ph/0401198v3.pdf
  168. LIDDLE,A.R. (2001) Inflationary Cosmology: Status and Prospects  http://arxiv.org/pdf/astro-ph/0111556v1.pdf
  169. LIDDLE,A.R. (2001) Inflationary Cosmology: Theory and Phenomenology  http://arxiv.org/pdf/astro-ph/0109439v3.pdf
  170. LIDDLE,A.R.  An introduction to cosmological inflation (1999) http://arxiv.org/pdf/astro-ph/9901124v1.pdf
  171. LIDSEY,J. WANDS,D. COPELAND,E  (2000) Superstring Cosmology  http://arxiv.org/pdf/hep-th/9909061v2.pdf
  172. LIDSEY et al (2004) Oscillatory Universes in Loop Quantum Cosmology and Initial Conditions for Inflation  http://arxiv.org/pdf/gr-qc/0406042v2.pdf
  173. LIDSEY,J.E. (2012) Cosmology and the Korteweg-de Vries Equation  http://arxiv.org/pdf/1205.5641v2.pdf
  174. LINDE,A. (2005) Inflation and String Cosmology  http://arxiv.org/pdf/hep-th/0503195v1.pdf
  175. LINDE,A. (2005) PARTICLE PHYSICS AND INFLATIONARY COSMOLOGY  http://arxiv.org/pdf/hep-th/0503203v1.pdf
  176. LINDE,A. (2007) Inflationary Cosmology  http://arxiv.org/pdf/0705.0164v2.pdf
  177. LINDE,A. VANCHURIN,V.  (2009)  How many universes are in the multiverse?  http://arxiv.org/pdf/0910.1589v3.pdf
  178. LINEWEAVER,C. & EGAN,C. (2007) The Cosmic Coincidence as a Temporal Selection Effect Produced by the Age Distribution of Terrestrial Planets in the Universe  http://arxiv.org/pdf/astro-ph/0703429v1.pdf
  179. LINEWEAVER,C. & EGAN,C. (2008)(Review) Life, gravity and the second law of thermodynamics  http://www.mso.anu.edu.au/~charley/papers/LineweaverEgan2008v2.pdf
  180. LYNDS, P. (2003) Time and Classical and Quantum Mechanics: Indeterminacy vs. Discontinuity http://arxiv.org/ftp/physics/papers/0310/0310055.pdf
  181. MAIA, M. et al (2002) The accelerating universe in brane-world cosmology  http://arxiv.org/pdf/astro-ph/0208223v1.pdf
  182. MARTEL,H., SHAPIRO,P., WEINBERG,S. (1997) Likely Values for the Cosmological Constant  http://arxiv.org/pdf/astro-ph/9701099.pdf
  183. MARTIN, JEROME (2012) Everything You Always Wanted To Know About The Cosmological Constant Problem (But Were Afraid To Ask)  http://arxiv.org/pdf/1205.3365v1.pdf
  184. MERALI,Z. (2006) ‘Cyclic universe’ can explain cosmological constant (Article)  http://www.newscientist.com/article/dn9114-cyclic-universe-can-explain-cosmological-constant.html#.UcD9tOtBFr0
  185. MERSINI-HOUGHTON,L. HOLMAN,R. ’Tilting’ the Universe with the Landscape Multiverse: The ’Dark’ Flow  http://arxiv.org/pdf/0810.5388v1.pdf
  186. MITHANI, A. VILENKIN, A. (2012) Did the universe have a beginning? http://arxiv.org/pdf/1204.4658v1.pdf
  187. MOSS,A. SCOTT,D. ZIBIN,P. (2011) No evidence for anomalously low variance circles on the sky  http://arxiv.org/pdf/1012.1305v3.pdf
  188. MOSS, I (2002) EXOTIC BLACK HOLES  http://research.ncl.ac.uk/cosmology/reviews/yukawa.pdf
  189. MULLER,D.  VITENTI,S.  (2006) About Starobinsky Inflation  http://arxiv.org/pdf/gr-qc/0606018v2.pdf
  190. OLUM (2012) Is there any coherent measure for eternal inflation?  http://arxiv.org/pdf/1202.3376.pdf
  191. OVERDUIN & WESSON (1998) Kaluza-Klein Gravity  http://arxiv.org/pdf/gr-qc/9805018v1.pdf
  192. PAGE (2011) Ab Initio Estimates of the Size of the Observable Universe  http://arxiv.org/pdf/1108.0111.pdf
  193. PAGE, D. (2008) Does God So Love the Multiverse?  http://arxiv.org/pdf/0801.0246.pdf
  194. PAGE, D. (2004) Predictions and Tests of Multiverse Theories   http://arxiv.org/pdf/hep-th/0610101v1.pdf
  195. PAGE, D. (2003) ANTHROPIC ESTIMATES OF THE CHARGE AND MASS OF
    THE PROTON  http://arxiv.org/pdf/hep-th/0302051v3.pdf
  196. PEEBLES, B. RATRA, B. (2003) The Cosmological Constant and Dark Energy  http://arxiv.org/pdf/astro-ph/0207347v2.pdf
  197. PEIRIS (Dissertation) (2003) FIRST YEAR WMAP  http://zuserver2.star.ucl.ac.uk/~hiranya/Hiranya/Hiranya_Peiris_files/chap0.pdf
  198. PEIRIS et al (2013) Planck 2013 results .XVI .Cosmological parameters  http://arxiv.org/pdf/1303.5076v1.pdf
  199. PEIRIS Understanding Cosmic Acceleration (SLIDES) http://cosmology.lbl.gov/talks/Peiris_07.pdf
  200. PEIRIS, HIRANYA (2011) First Observational Tests of Eternal Inflation SLIDES http://particle.physics.ucdavis.edu/seminars/data/media/2011/apr/peiris.pdf
  201. PENROSE,R. GURZADYAN,V. (2010) Concentric circles in WMAP data may provide evidence of violent pre-Big-Bang activity  http://arxiv.org/ftp/arxiv/papers/1011/1011.3706.pdf
  202. PERLMUTTER et al (1999) MEASUREMENTS OF OMEGA AND LAMDA FROM 42 HIGH-REDSHIFT SUPERNOVAE  http://iopscience.iop.org/0004-637X/517/2/565/pdf/0004-637X_517_2_565.pdf & http://arxiv.org/pdf/astro-ph/9812133v1.pdf
  203. PEREZ & CNRS (2007) INTRODUCTION TO LOOP QUANTUM GRAVITY AND SPIN FOAMS  http://arxiv.org/pdf/gr-qc/0409061v3.pdf
  204. PEREZ (2009) A guided tour through the wild nuclear landscape  http://physics.aps.org/articles/pdf/10.1103/Physics.2.21
  205. POPLAWSKI,  (2012) NONSINGULAR, BIG-BOUNCE COSMOLOGY FROM SPINOR-TORSION COUPLING http://arxiv.org/pdf/1111.4595v2.pdf
  206. PROKOPEC,T. (2011) Cosmology with negative energy (COSMO 11 – slides)  http://www.astro.up.pt/investigacao/conferencias/cosmo11/DVD/talks/STR/pdf/T.Prokopec.pdf
  207. RACHEL & GAHLINGS (2013) (NB 1st April!) Conspiratorial cosmology—the case against the Universe  http://arxiv.org/pdf/1303.7476v1.pdf
  208. RANDALL,L. & SUNDRUM,R (1999) A Large Mass Hierarchy from a Small Extra Dimension http://arxiv.org/pdf/hep-ph/9905221v1.pdf
  209. REES, MARTIN Research Publications  http://www.ast.cam.ac.uk/~mjr/publications/
  210. REES, MARTIN – bibliography  http://www.phys-astro.sonoma.edu/BruceMedalists/rees/ReesRefs.html
  211. REES, MARTIN (2003) Numerical Coincidences and ‘Tuning’ in Cosmology,” Astrophysics & Space Science 285, 375-88 (2003).
  212. REES, MARTIN (2003) Dark Matter: Introduction http://arxiv.org/pdf/astro-ph/0402045v1.pdf
  213. RICHMOND, P. (2007) Richard Dawkins’ Darwinian Objection to Unexplained Complexity in God http://www.scienceandchristianbelief.org/articles/Richmond-article-19-2.pdf
  214. RIESS, SCHMIDT et al (1998) OBSERVATIONAL EVIDENCE FROM SUPERNOVAE FOR AN ACCELERATING UNIVERSE AND A COSMOLOGICAL CONSTANT  http://iopscience.iop.org/1538-3881/116/3/1009/pdf/1538-3881_116_3_1009.pdf & http://arxiv.org/pdf/astro–ph/9805201.pdf
  215. RIOTTO, A. (2002) Inflation and the Theory of Cosmological Perturbations  http://arxiv.org/pdf/hep-ph/0210162v1.pdf
  216. RUGH,S. ZINKERNAGEL,H (2001)  The Quantum Vacuum and the Cosmological Constant Problem   http://arxiv.org/pdf/hep-th/0012253v1.pdf
  217. RUMSFELD,D. The Randall-Sundrum ‘Braneworld Model (2006) REVIEW  http://spacetimecurves.blogspot.co.uk/2006/06/randall-sundrum-braneworld-model.html
  218. SAHNI, STAROBINSKY (2000) The Case for a Positive Cosmological lamda-term  http://arxiv.org/pdf/astro-ph/9904398.pdf
  219. SANDVIK, BARROW, MAGUEIJO (2001) A simple varying-alpha cosmology http://arxiv.org/pdf/astro-ph/0107512v3.pdf
  220. SETO,N. & COORAY,A. (2007) Searching for Primordial Black Hole Dark Matter with Pulsar Timing Arrays  http://iopscience.iop.org/1538-4357/659/1/L33/fulltext/21354.text.html
  221. de SIMONE,  GUTH, A., SALEM, M., VILENKIN, A. (2008) Predicting the cosmological constant with the scale-factor cutoff measure  http://arxiv.org/pdf/0805.2173v1.pdf
  222. de SITTER,W. (1913) On the constancy of the velocity of light  http://en.wikisource.org/wiki/On_the_constancy_of_the_velocity_of_light
  223. de SITTER, W. (1916) On Einstein’s Theory of Gravitation  http://articles.adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-iarticle_query?1916MNRAS..77..155D&data_type=PDF_HIGH&whole_paper=YES&type=PRINTER&filetype=.pdf
  224. SMOLIN, L. (2003) How far are we from the quantum theory of gravity? http://arxiv.org/pdf/hep-th/0303185v2.pdf
  225. SMOLIN,L. (2004) Scientific alternatives to the anthropic principle  http://arxiv.org/pdf/hep-th/0407213v3.pdf
  226. SMOLIN, L. (2004) Cosmological natural selection as the explanation for the complexity of the uniiverse http://www.nat.vu.nl/~wimu/Varying-Constants-Papers/Smolin-Physica-2004.pdf
  227. SMOLIN,L. (2006) Quantum Gravity and the Standard Model  http://arxiv.org/pdf/hep-th/0603022.pdf
  228. SMOLIN, L. (2006) Could quantum mechanics be an approximation to another theory?  http://arxiv.org/pdf/quant-ph/0609109v1.pdf
  229. SMOLIN,L. (2006) The status of cosmological natural selection  http://arxiv.org/pdf/hep-th/0612185v1.pdf
  230. SMOLIN, L. (2008) (2005)? Symmetry and entropy of black hole horizons http://arxiv.org/pdf/hep-th/0409056.pdf
  231. SMOLIN, GARRETT, SPEZIONE (2010) Unification of gravity, gauge fields, and Higgs bosons  http://arxiv.org/pdf/1004.4866v2.pdf
  232. SMOLIN,L. (2012) A perspective on the landscape problem  http://arxiv.org/pdf/1202.3373.pdf
  233. SMOLIN (2013) Lee Smolin’s articles on arXiv  http://arxiv.org/a/smolin_l_1
  234. SOLA, JOAN (2013) Cosmological constant and vacuum energy: old and new ideas  http://arxiv.org/pdf/1306.1527v1.pdf
  235. SORKIN,R.D. (1997) FORKS IN THE ROAD, ON THE WAY TO QUANTUM GRAVITY  http://arxiv.org/pdf/gr-qc/9706002v1.pdf
  236. STEINHARDT (2013)(Article) The Endless Universe: Introduction to the Cyclic Universe  http://www.actionbioscience.org/newfrontiers/steinhardt.html
  237. STEINHARDT, TUROK et al (2001) The Ekpyrotic Universe: Colliding Branes and the Origin of the Hot Big Bang  http://arxiv.org/pdf/hep-th/0103239v3.pdf
  238. STEINHARDT, TUROK (2002) A Cyclic Model of the Universe  http://arxiv.org/pdf/hep-th/0111030v2.pdf
  239. STENGER,V.J. (2000) NATURAL EXPLANATIONS FOR THE ANTHROPIC COINCIDENCES  http://www.colorado.edu/philosophy/vstenger/Cosmo/anthro_philo.pdf
  240. SUN & YUE (2013) Stable Large-Scale Perturbations In Interacting Dark-Energy Model  http://arxiv.org/pdf/1303.0684.pdf
  241. SUSSKIND, L. (2002) Twenty Years of Debate with Stephen  http://arxiv.org/pdf/hep-th/0204027v1.pdf
  242. SUSSKIND,L. (2003) The Anthropic Landscape of String Theory   http://arxiv.org/pdf/hep–th/0302219.pdf
  243. SUSSKIND,L. (2004) Supersymmetry Breaking in the Anthropic Landscape  http://power.itp.ac.cn/~mli/paper1.pdf
  244. SUSSKIND, L. (2007) The Census Taker’s Hat  http://arxiv.org/pdf/0710.1129v1.pdf
  245. SUSSKIND,L. (2012) Is Eternal Inflation Past-Eternal? And What if It Is?  http://arxiv.org/pdf/1205.0589.pdf
  246. SUSSKIND, L. (2012) Was There a Beginning? http://arxiv.org/pdf/1204.5385v1.pdf
  247. TEGMARK,M (1997), THE INTERPRETATION OF QUANTUM MECHANICS: MANY WORLDS OR MANY WORDS?  http://arxiv.org/pdf/quant-ph/9709032.pdf
  248. TEGMARK, MAX (1997) On the dimensionality of spacetime  http://space.mit.edu/home/tegmark/dimensions.pdf
  249. TEGMARK, REES (1997) WHY IS THE CMB FLUCTUATION LEVEL 10^-5?  http://arxiv.org/pdf/astro-ph/9709058v2.pdf
  250. TEGMARK (1998) The Universes of Max Tegmark  http://space.mit.edu/home/tegmark/technical.html
  251. TEGMARK, M. (1998) Is “the theory of everything” merely the ultimate ensemble theory?  http://arxiv.org/pdf/gr-qc/9704009v2.pdf
  252. TEGMARK, M. (1999) The Importance of Quantum Decoherence in Brain Processes  http://arxiv.org/pdf/quant-ph/9907009v2.pdf
  253. TEGMARK,M. (2001), 100 Years of the Quantum http://arxiv.org/pdf/quant-ph/0101077.pdf
  254. TEGMARK (2003) Parallel Universes  http://arxiv.org/pdf/astro-ph/0302131v1.pdf
  255. TEGMARK, VILENKIN, POGOSIAN (2005) Anthropic predictions for neutrino masses  http://arxiv.org/pdf/astro-ph/0304536v3.pdf
  256. TEGMARK, REES et al (2006) Dimensionless constants, cosmology, and other dark matters  http://www.nat.vu.nl/~wimu/Varying-Constants-Papers/Tegmark-PRD-DimensionlessConstants.pdf
  257. TEGMARK (2007) The Mathematical Universe  http://arxiv.org/pdf/0704.0646.pdf
  258. TEGMARK (2007) Shut up and calculate  http://arxiv.org/pdf/0709.4024v1.pdf
  259. TEGMARK (2008) (Article) Is the Universe Actually Made of Math? http://discovermagazine.com/2008/jul/16-is-the-universe-actually-made-of-math#.UTsOXhk9n_4
  260. TEGMARK (2009) The Multiverse Hierarchy  http://arxiv.org/pdf/0905.1283v1.pdf
  261. TEGMARK, M. (2010) Many Worlds in Context  http://arxiv.org/pdf/0905.2182v2.pdf
  262. TEGMARK,M. (2013) (Article) Celebrating Darwin: Religion And Science Are Closer Than You Think  http://www.huffingtonpost.com/max-tegmark/religion-and-science-distance-between-not-as-far-as-you-think_b_2664657.html
  263. TEMPEL (2012) QUANTUM COMPUTING WITHOUT WAVEFUNCTIONS  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3341739/pdf/srep00391.pdf
  264. THIRRING,W. (1958) A soluble relativistic field theory  http://adsabs.harvard.edu
  265. TSUJIKAWA,S. (2003) Introductory Review of Cosmic Inflation  http://arxiv.org/pdf/hep-ph/0304257v1.pdf
  266. TRYON, E.P. (1973) Is the universe just a vacuum fluctuation? http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v246/n5433/pdf/246396a0.pdf
  267. TUROK, N. HAWKING,S. (2008)? Open Inflation, the Four Form and the Cosmological Constant  http://arxiv.org/pdf/hep-th/9803156v4.pdf
  268. TUROK (2007) The Measure Problem in Cosmology  http://arxiv.org/pdf/hep-th/0609095v2.pdf
  269. UCL ASTROPHYSICS RESEARCH (2012) (SLIDES) http://londoncosmology.files.wordpress.com/2012/11/ucl_lcdm_31102012.pdf
  270. VAAS, R (2009) Multiverse Scenarios in Cosmology  http://journalofcosmology.com/Multiverse7.html
  271. VAIDYA, P. (2007) Are We Alone in the Multiverse? http://arxiv.org/ftp/arxiv/papers/0706/0706.0317.pdf
  272. VILENKIN, A. (1994) Predictions from Quantum Cosmology http://arxiv.org/pdf/gr-qc/9406010v2.pdf
  273. VILENKIN, Alexander (2001) Cosmological constant problems and their solutions http://arxiv.org/pdf/hep-th/0106083v2.pdf
  274. VILENKIN, A. (2004) Anthropic predictions: the case of the cosmological constant  http://arxiv.org/pdf/astro-ph/0407586v1.pdf
  275. VILENKIN, Alexander (2006) On cosmic natural selection  http://arxiv.org/pdf/hep-th/0610051v2.pdf
  276. VILENKIN, A. (2007) Freak observers and the measure of the multiverse  http://arxiv.org/pdf/hep-th/0611271v2.pdf
  277. VILENKIN,A. (2007) A measure of the multiverse  http://arxiv.org/pdf/hep-th/0609193v3.pd
  278. VILENKIN, A. (2009) Holographic multiverse  http://arxiv.org/pdf/0809.4257v3.pdf
  279. VILENKIN, A. (2009) Many Worlds in One  http://articles.adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-iarticle_query?2009ASPC..409…14V&data_type=PDF_HIGH&whole_paper=YES&type=PRINTER&filetype=.pdf
  280. VILENKIN, A. (2010) Perspectives in cosmology  http://arxiv.org/pdf/0908.0721v1.pdf
  281. VILENKIN, A. (2011) The Principle of Mediocrity  http://arxiv.org/pdf/1108.4990v1.pdf
  282. VILENKIN (2011) Holographic multiverse and the measure problem http://arxiv.org/pdf/1103.1132v3.pdf
  283. VILENKIN, A. (2013) Arrows of time and the beginning of the universe http://arxiv.org/pdf/1305.3836v2.pdf
  284. VILENKIN, GARRIGA (2013) Watchers of the multiverse http://arxiv.org/pdf/1210.7540v3.pdf
  285. WATSON, G. (2000) An Exposition on Inflationary Cosmology  http://arxiv.org/pdf/astro-ph/0005003v2.pdf
  286. WEINBERG,S. (1987) Anthropic bound on the cosmological constant  http://prl.aps.org/abstract/PRL/v59/i22/p2607_1
  287. WEINBERG,S. (1997) What is Quantum Field Theory, and What Did We Think It Is?  http://arxiv.org/pdf/hep-th/9702027v1.pdf
  288. WEINBERG, S. (1989) The Cosmological Constant Problem  Rev. Mod. Phys. 61, 1–23 (1989)  http://rmp.aps.org/abstract/RMP/v61/i1/p1_1
  289. WEINBERG, S.(2000) The Cosmological Constant Problems  http://arxiv.org/pdf/astro-ph/0005265v1.pdf
  290. WEINBERG, S. (2001) A Priori Probability Distribution of the Cosmological Constant  http://arxiv.org/pdf/astro-ph/0002387v1.pdf
  291. WEINBERG, S. (2004) The Making of the Standard Model  http://arxiv.org/pdf/hep-ph/0401010v1.pdf
  292. WEINBERG,S. (2005) Living in the Multiverse  http://arxiv.org/pdf/hep-th/0511037v1.pdf
  293. WEINBERG,S. (2009) Living With Infinities  http://gdr-lqcd.in2p3.fr/reunion09/coursrenorm/Weinberg_0903.0568.pdf
  294. WEINSTEIN, S. (2006) Anthropic reasoning and typicality in multiverse cosmology and string theory  http://arxiv.org/pdf/hep-th/0508006v2.pdf
  295. WHEELER,J. (1957) Assessment of Everett’s ‘Relative State’ Formulation of Quantum Theory  http://www.psiquadrat.de/downloads/wheeler_on_everett57.pdf
  296. WHITROW, G. (1955) Einstein. Obituary  http://articles.adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-iarticle_query?1955Obs….75..166W&data_type=PDF_HIGH&whole_paper=YES&type=PRINTER&filetype=.pdf
  297. WILCZEK, F. (2005) Asymptotic Freedom: From Paradox to Paradigm http://arxiv.org/pdf/hep-ph/0502113v2.pdf
  298. WILCZEK F.  (2005) Enlightenment, Knowledge, Ignorance, Temptation http://arxiv.org/pdf/hep-ph/0512187v2.pdf
  299. WILCZEK, F. (2007) Fundamental constants http://arxiv.org/pdf/0708.4361v1.pdf
  300. WILCZEK, F. (2013) Multiversality http://arxiv.org/pdf/1307.7376v1.pdf
  301. ZELDOVICH, Y. (1967) Cosmological Constant and Elementary Particles http://www.jetpletters.ac.ru/ps/1673/article_25521.pdf
  302. ZIMMERMANN JONES,A. (2012) (Article) Warped Space May Create Escher-like Universe  http://physics.about.com/b/2012/06/13/escherverse.htm

.

GENERAL

Multiverse or Universe? Physicists Debate (2013) Review  http://www.space.com/21421-universe-multiverse-inflation-theory.html

General Relativity and Quantum Cosmology (Authors and titles for recent submissions 2013) http://arxiv.org/list/gr-qc/recent

SOME INTERESTING REVIEW ARTICLES (c.1999-2004), Sean Carroll  http://preposterousuniverse.com/reviewarticles.html

Does the Big Bang necessarily mean we’re part of a multiverse? (2013) (Article) http://arstechnica.com/science/2013/06/does-the-big-bang-necessarily-mean-were-part-of-a-multiverse/

Rees, Martin – bibliography  http://www.phys-astro.sonoma.edu/BruceMedalists/rees/ReesRefs.html

Bibliography / Further Reading  J.T.Wong (1999)  http://web.uvic.ca/~jtwong/bibliography.htm

Cosmology from the Top Down, Stephen Hawking (2003)  http://arxiv.org/ftp/astro-ph/papers/0305/0305562.pdf

QUANTUM COSMOLOGY(1996) (Article)  http://www.damtp.cam.ac.uk/research/gr/public/qg_qc.html

Quantum Gravity (1996)(Cambridge review)  http://www.damtp.cam.ac.uk/research/gr/public/qg_home.html

Astrobiology (Index)  http://users.ictp.it/~chelaf/Index_Subjects_Book_3.pdf

Publications: Bernard Carr  http://www.researchpublications.qmul.ac.uk/publications/staff/19245.html

Anthropic principle preprints, Nick Bostrom    http://www.anthropic-principle.com/?q=resources/preprints

Anthropic Bias (2002)(book) Nick Bostrom  http://www.anthropic-principle.com/sites/anthropic-principle.com/files/pdfs/anthropicbias.pdf

A guided tour through the wild nuclear landscape (2009)(Article)  http://physics.aps.org/articles/pdf/10.1103/Physics.2.21

Before the Big Bang (2004)(Article) http://discovermagazine.com/2004/feb/cover/#.UTyGsRk9n_4

LAMBDA – Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe  NASA  http://lambda.gsfc.nasa.gov/product/map/current/

CERN http://home.web.cern.ch

Collider Physics within the Standard Model: a Primer (2013)  http://arxiv.org/pdf/1303.2842v1.pdf

INSPIREHEP – High Energy Physics information REFERENCES http://inspirehep.net/record/919204/references

Cosmology and Theology (2011) http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/cosmology-theology {Stanford} Good references

Quantum Cosmology (Article)  http://www.damtp.cam.ac.uk/research/gr/public/qg_qc.html

Quantum Gravity (Cambridge review)  http://www.damtp.cam.ac.uk/research/gr/public/qg_home.html

Gravity and the Quantum, Ashtekar,A. (2004)  http://arxiv.org/pdf/gr-qc/0410054v2.pdf

Some Black Holes Existed Prior to the Big Bang (2012) (Article) http://www.dailygalaxy.com/my_weblog/2012/07/some-black-holes-existed-prior-to-the-big-bang-were-assimilated-into-newly-formed-universe-todays-mo.html

The Principles of Mathematics, Russell,B. (1903)  http://fair-use.org/bertrand-russell/the-principles-of-mathematics/

The Problems of Philosophy Russell,B. (1912) http://www.ditext.com/russell/russell.html

WIKI Hilbert space  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hilbert_space

WIKI Kaluza–Klein theory  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kaluza%E2%80%93Klein_theory

WIKI  Many-worlds interpretation  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Many-worlds_interpretation

WIKI Modal realism http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Modal_realism

WIKI Multiverse http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Multiverse

WIKI Simulated reality http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Simulated_reality

WIKI Vacuum state  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vacuum_state#The_energy_of_the_vacuum_state

WIKI Quantum Mind http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quantum_mind

.

BIOGRAPHIES

ALBRECHT,A. Website  http://albrecht.ucdavis.edu/

CIRKOVIC, M. Website  http://mcirkovic.aob.rs/

FEYNMAN,R. Official Site  http://www.feynmanonline.com/

HAWKING,S. The Official Website http://www.hawking.org.uk/

LINDE,A. Biog. http://www.stanford.edu/~alinde/

WIKI ALBRECHT, Andreas  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Andreas_Albrecht

WIKI ASHTEKAR, Abhay  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abhay_Ashtekar

WIKI BARROW,John  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_D._Barrow

WIKI BOUSSO, Raphael  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Raphael_Bousso

WIKI CARR, Bernard http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bernard_Carr

WIKI CARTER, Brandon  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brandon_Carter

WIKI DAVIES, Paul  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paul_Davies

WIKI EINSTEIN, Albert http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Albert_Einstein

WIKI ELLIS, George  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/George_Francis_Rayner_Ellis

WIKI EVERETT III, Hugh  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hugh_Everett_III

WIKI FEYNMAN, Richard http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_Feynman

WIKI GAMOW, George  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/George_Gamow

WIKI GITH, Alan  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alan_Guth

WIKI HAWKING,Stephen http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stephen_Hawking

WIKI HILBERT,David  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/David_Hilbert

WIKI HOYLE, Fred  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fred_Hoyle

WIKI LIDDLE, Andrew http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Andrew_R._Liddle

WIKI LINDE, Andrei http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Andrei_Linde

WIKI REES, Martin  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Martin_Rees,_Baron_Rees_of_Ludlow

WIKI RUSSELL, Bertrand  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bertrand_Russell

WIKI de SITTER, Willem http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Willem_de_Sitter

WIKI SMOLIN, Leo  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lee_Smolin

WIKI SUSSKIND, Leonard  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leonard_Susskind

WIKI TEGMARK,Max  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Max_Tegmark

WIKI TUROK, Neil  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neil_Turok

WIKI VILENKIN, Alexander  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alexander_Vilenkin

WIKI WEINBERG,Stephen  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Steven_Weinberg

WIKI WILCZEK, Frank http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Frank_Wilczek