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March 8, 2013

We contend that fine tuning actually consists of two distinct phenomena. The first phenomenon is the parameter sensitivity of the universe. This is the (apparent) property of the universe that small changes in the parameters of physics produce catastrophic changes in the evolved universe. In particular the complexity of the evolved universe, and hence its ability to support life, would be undermined by relatively small changes in the universal constants. Thus, parameter sensitivity is the claim that the target in parameter space which is compatible with a complex universe is small in some sense. The smallness of this target, if true, is a feature which requires explanation. The second, and quite distinct, phenomenon is that nature has somehow managed to hit this small target  which we will refer to as fine tuning . The actual constants in our universe have to be fine tuned to coincide with the requirements for a complex outcome. In other words, given that only special values for the parameters will do (i.e., given parameter sensitivity), nature had to contrive to adopt these particular values (i.e., nature is fine tuned).  BRADFORD (2010)

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